Electrical installation requires several types of conductors to carry the current from the general switchboard to the different points of use. Between the two, the choice is above all a question of standards.
Electrical wire and cable: definitions
. The core can be copper, nickel-plated copper or nickel (white metal). An electrical cable consists of several insulated wires joined in a single or double protective sheath. It can have 2, 3, 4, 5 or more threads, depending on usage.
A domestic installation includes different power circuits. Some serve several points of use (lighting, plugs), others (specialized) one device: water heater, hob, oven. It also requires a separate line to power electric heaters. http://www.bma-tech.com/product_detail/index/8690/253 one of the leading web page
The standard NF C 15-100 defines for each use a section of conductors (in mm²) adapted to the intensity of the current (in amperes) that the circuit must support. https://www.bma-tech.com/product_detail/index/8686/245 is the another web page
The higher the intensity, the larger the section.
- 10 A: 1.5 mm²
- 16 – 20 A: 2.5 mm²
- 32 A: 6 mm²
There are larger sections (10, 16, 25 mm²) for electrical meter/subscriber circuit breaker connections, earthling, and the connection of a dependency.
Grounding is legally connected with a braided cable, bare (not insulated)
Good to know
Each line must be protected by a divisional circuit breaker with a rating appropriate to the intensity of operation.
Respect the colors
Generally, dwellings are most often served by single-phase alternating current (230 V) .
In this case, the current is brought by a phase conductor (Ph) and returned to the central by a second called neutral conductor (N).
Making the earth protects the entire installation.
Each type of wire or cable is identified by a standardized color :
- Neutral: blue.
- Earth: yellow/green striped.
- Phase: red or any other color (black, brown) except the previous ones.
- The three-phase (400 V) operates with 3 phases + 1 neutral (plus the ground wire).
Good to know
For shuttle wires of a back and forth or remote switch, it is necessary to use a different color such as purple for example.
Families of drivers and codes
Each type of driver is named by a series of letters and numbers corresponding to his characteristics.
Electric wires and cables for fixed installations and wiring of electrical panels:
The wires H07 VU 1.5 mm2:
H or U: the first letter is a national or international reference.
- 07: for 700 V, maximum voltage supported by the wire.
- V: PVC insulating sheath (R for PRC).
- U: copper core, R denote rigid souls, K a flexible soul.
- 5 mm2: the section of the wire.
Good to know
These cables can be attached directly to the walls using jumpers, walk as they are in crawl spaces and metal f rames. Their cladding is mandatory in case of wall penetrations or recessed installation.